Your Neighbourhood, Your Data

A gamified survey for smart city research

With the Leiden-Delft-Erasmus Centre for BOLD Cities we developed a gamified survey to generate insights into the knowledge, privacy concerns and privacy behaviour of the Dutch population.

(Action) research

Cities are increasingly deploying digital and data-driven (smart city) technologies to make them more efficient, sustainable, liveable and safe. This has an impact on what cities look like how people (can) behave in them. However, we do not know

  • What do people know about this (digital literacy)?
  • What are their (privacy) concerns?
  • In which situations are they willing to share personal data (privacy behaviour)?

(Participatory) design

We designed a virtual environment with search pictures and dilemmas to investigate the Dutch population’s digital literacy, privacy concerns and privacy behaviour.


We conclude that respondents are able to identify relatively few 'data points' and are willing to share personal data in half of the situations they are confronted with. The privacy behaviour of respondents can be explained most strongly by their privacy concerns: people who are more concerned about their privacy appear to share less personal data than others. People's ability to identify data points, as well as their age, education and income, appear to have much less of an effect on privacy behaviour. The gender and place of residence of the respondents have no effect on the dependent variables.